Herculaneum 2013

Overlooking Herculaneum .....FYI eruption was on August 24 AD 79 town below Herculano .....FYI Oscan names were scribbled in some of the houses amount of pyroclastic overburden .....FYI there are Samnite houses in the town dating at least 200 BC from walkway above .....FYI the Samnites spoke Oscan Herculano above Herculaneum .....FYI Heracles or Hercules appears to have been the patron diety Decumanus Maximus Foro zoom into area below .....FYI by Roman Republic times this town was  a fashionable center general shot from above .....FYI from the limited excavations it is assumed a population of about 5000 fYI Cicero thought Herculaneum was one of the important centers of Campania modern town visible above .....FYI Caligula owned a villa near the town zoom into a building 4th style .....FYI the Phlegraean Fields were 20 miles with the grotto of Cumae and the Sibyl old ramp down FYI the deposit contains charred wood by not all was carbonized FYI the wood was heated up to 400 degrees Centigrade or 725 Fahrenheit statues from above FYI some items were merely scorched and some unharmed wood rope eggs fishnets and wax tablets and heads were preserved statue of Marcus Nonius Balbas Proconsul of Crete and Cyrenaica in North Africa map showing 5 acre area excavated original port edge Casa dell Albergo wall consruction .....FYI the population estimate is based on the seating capacity of the theater Block numbers .....FYI how big was the town well nobody really knows but the estimate is about 55 acres impluvium and cistern well cap .....FYI the Forum public bath used well water Casa de Aristude .....FYI the amount of wood in Roman towns is revealed in beams, sills shutters doors stairs and furniture Casa dello Scheletro entry way Casa dello Scheletro further in Casa dello Scheletro porphory wall paining Casa dello Scheletro marble fragment floor lararium houshold shrine Casa dello Scheletro wall painting marble tile floor floor Casa dello Scheletro entry with part of floor marble hinge plate for wooden door household shrine lararium Casa dello Scheletro paintings above shrine Casa dello Scheletro Casa dello Scheletro Casa dello Scheletro moasic floor FYI often the kitchen or culina was next to the latrine or latrina stairs to upper floors storage jar in a room small shop bar tavern FYI grafitti on latrine wall Apollinarius physician of the Emperor Titus here shitted well jars contained dry goods dried fruit grain olives streets second style wall painting charred roof beams impluvium Casa de Balba wall construction note different construction preserved pediment with pigeon guards wall mask FYI the Villa of the Papyri nearby contained 1787 carbonized scrolls of the works of Philodemus facade along main street FYI the Getty Museum duplicates the peristyle of the Villa of the Papyri rainwater drains College of Augustals shrine of the deified Emperor second story charred floor Collage of Augustals ran by cult of Augustales Augustals interior paintings Augustals Augustals Augustals Augustals Augustals Augustals charred floor and beams Augustals Augustals Augustals Augustals Decumanus Maximus Foro thermopolium or shop archway house of the columns fragments of wall plaster decumano massimo foro charred rope street grafitti grafitti and charred beams cardo V street 5 public fountain thermopolium shop snack bar or wine shop storage jar street political add snake symbol of bounty fountain spout water tower to maintain fountain pressure charred wooden door shutter closer view of shutter more charred wood door hercules fountain at end of foro fountain at end of foro wall paining wall construction street shrine marble stairway interior portico mosic floor traces of wall paint earthquake slumpage developed third style note thickness of plaster in photos Casa del Salone Nero interior portico early third style preserved ceilings Casa del Salone Nero preserved ceilings preserved ceilings preserved ceilings preserved ceilings another public fountain underground area mosaic marble table stone and brick construction charred wooden stairway house of telephus with round marble oscill carved with Bacchic revels on both sides to revolve in the breeze This house may have been owned by Marcus Nonius Balbus who had supported Vespasian in the civil wars of AD 68 to 69 impluvium and cistern well relief carving statue of Marcus Nonius Balbus house of the great portal Samnite house samnite decoration Samnite house impluvium in samnite house upper decoration samnite Samnite house Samnite house thickness of plaster over walls another marble door henge cereal shop at house of neptune and amphitrite upper mezzanine preserved wood wine amphora shop sold cereals beans chickpeas beets, carrots herbs onions olives figs plums berries cherries FYI almost all Roman roasted meat was cooked with honey house of neptune and amphitrite plaster and paint ceiling stone gutter for watering garden Casa dell Albergo impluvium well and table for sacrifice water spouts into impluvium screen doors casa del tramezzo di legno bronze decoration on door doors behind plexiglass reflecting light windless and scorched rope used do draw well water in the House of Opus Craticiumope water system for garden photos by Carol and Goode follow series of main bath photos Goode as Hercules oscilla hanging relief the boathouses where skeletons found

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